This homework is due 18/11. It can be
delivered to Stefan personally at his office or put in his
mail slot at the department. Do not use the department mail box.
It can also be given to Stefan in connection with one of the lectures.
Solutions handed in late are not accepted and will not be graded.
Some forms of collaboration are allowed and required. The size of a
group of collaboration should be two people.
The group should hand in only one solution and for each problem it
should be clearly marked which of the members have contributed.
There will be a list outside of Stefan's office
where you can book a time. All members of the group must be present when
the homework is returned.
I do not consider the set of problems below easy. Thus a
performance of getting half the total score on this set
is at least equivalent to the grade 4 on this subset of
the course. Credit may be given for partially solved
problems.
1. Multiplication (40p)
Your task is to implement multiplication algorithms for
large integers. You should implement both the schoolbook
algorithm and Karatsuba's algorithm.
The multiplication algorithms should be implemented from scratch
using either C or Java.
However, you may use standard libraries, such as Java's BigInteger,
for reading and converting numbers from and to decimal form.
Compare the running times of the algorithms experimentally.
(Optionally, compare the running time of your algorithms with
the algorithm based on FFT in the textbook by Goodrich and Tamassia.)

The code should follow
Java Code Conventions
(or similar C conventions).
IndexTreeList.java
is intended to be a good
example.

Your code should be well documented and easy to use.
The documentation could be generated using
javadoc.

The API should be easy to understand and use. Only include necessary
methods and carefully design your data types.

The code should be robust. Erroneous parameters and function
calls should be handled gracefully.

The code should be efficient.

The code must, of course, be correct. Include code for testing
all functions. I highly recommend the following
article. You don't have to use the software tool described in
the article but the ideas are still very useful.
2. Fill in the gaps (5p+5p+5p+5p)
Give detailed proofs of the following statements.
page 14: If this condition is true for all a between 1 and p1
then N must be prime since gcd(a, N) = 1 for
1 <= a <= N1 which clearly implies that N is prime.
page 15: It is not hard to see that
x = a_{1}U_{1} + a_{2}U_{2} mod p_{1}p_{2}
fulfills the first set of equations ...
page 15: It is not difficult to extend this to larger r
(we leave the details as an exercise) and ...
page 16: But if N is prime, then the equation
x^{2} = 1 mod N has only the solutions
x = ±1 and ...
3. Prime numbers (20p)
Let p be a prime such that p = 1 mod 8.
Find, and prove, a formula for the number of solutions to
x^{d} = ±1 mod p where
d = (p  1)/8, (p  1)/4, and (p  1)/2.
4.Lemma 4.2 (20p)
Prove Lemma 4.2 in the lecture notes.