Avalg homework 1 fall 2001 This homework is due November 21 at 15.15. It can be delivered to Stefan or Jonas personally at their offices or put in their mail slot at the department. It can also be given to Stefan in connection with one of the lectures. Solutions handed in late are not accepted and will not be graded. Some forms of collaboration are allowed and required. The size of a group of collaboration should be two people. The group should hand in only one solution and for each problem it should be clearly marked which of the members have contributed. The homework will be returned on Monday and Tuesday November 26-27. Please book a time by writing your names on the list outside of Stefan's office. All members of the group must be present when the homework is returned. I do not consider the set of problems below easy. Thus a performance of getting half the total score on this set is at least equivalent to the grade 4 on this subset of the course. Credit may be given for partially solved problems. 1. Multiplication (60p) Your task is to implement multiplication algorithms for large numbers. You should implement both the schoolbook algorithm and Karatsuba's algorithm. (Optionally, you may also want to implement an algorithm based on the fast Fourier transform.) You should implement the algorithms from scratch using either C or Java. Compare the running times of the algorithms experimentally. The code should follow Java Code Conventions (or similar C conventions). `IndexTreeList.java` is intended to be a good example. Your code should be well documented and easy to use. The documentation could be generated using javadoc. The API should be easy to understand and use. Only include necessary methods and carefully design your data types. The code should be robust. Erroneous parameters and function calls should be handled gracefully. The code should be efficient. The code must, of course, be correct. Include code for testing all functions. 2. Fermat's little theorem (20p) Give an elementary proof of Fermat's little theorem, i.e. you may not use any group theoretic arguments. 3. Prime numbers (20p) Let p be a prime such that p = 1 mod 8. Find, and prove, a formula for the number of solutions to xd = ±1 mod p where d = (p - 1)/8, (p - 1)/4, and (p - 1)/2. 4. Detect a cycle in a linked list (20p) How can you detect a cycle in a linked list? The list is in read-only memory, and you cannot mark elements. Also, you may only use a constant amount of extra memory. 5.Lemma 4.2 (20p) Prove Lemma 4.2. 6. Cracking RSA (30p+30p) a) Using any free software, write a program to crack RSA. You may use at most 5 minutes of user time on a work station and you must be able to convincingly demonstrate that your program is working. The bigger the keys you manage to crack, the more points are awarded. b) Is it possible to crack RSA without factoring? What if you have no extra information except the public key and the encrypted message? What if you have some extra information? Stefan Nilsson 2001-11-14