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^ Lectures

Introduction to CSCW | Groupware concepts | Awareness in CSCW | Field studies | Collaborative writing | Communities | Collaborative virtual environments | Social interaction in virtual environments | Computer support for process management, part 1 | Computer support for process management, part 2 | Workplace studies | Face-to-Face conversation | Social navigation of information space

^ Introduction to CSCW

Purpose

The purpose of this lecture is to give a brief background to the area of CSCW and an overview of the course.

Content

  • what is CSCW,
  • overview of the course,
  • definitions,
  • perspectives of CSCW,
  • basic concepts and taxonomies, and
  • questions for discussion.

Literature

  • Bannon, L. & Schmidt, K. (1991) CSCW: Four Characters in Search of a Context. Studies in Computer Supported Cooperative Work: Theory, Practice and Design. Editors Bowers, J. M. & Benford, S. D. Elsevier Science Publishers.

^ Groupware concepts

Purpose

The purpose of this lecture is to provide an overview of various groupware systems and to discuss important issues in groupware design.

Content

  • background: technological transformations, evolution of working life, multidisciplinary research,
  • 3Cs of CSCW: Communication, Collaboration, Coordination,
  • taxonomy of groupware applications with examples,
  • groupware on the internet,
  • awareness support,
  • discussion: what are important factors for success of groupware applications.

Literature

Everyone:
  • Dix, A., Finlay, J., Abowd, G. & Beale, R. (1997, 1993) Human-Computer Interaction. New York: Prentice Hall. (Chapter 13)
  • Ellis, C.A., Gibbs, S.J., & Rein, G.L. (1991) Groupware: Some Issues and Experiences. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 34, No. 1.
For PhD students:
  • Cockburn, A. J. G. & Thimbleby, H. (1991) A Reflective Perspective of CSCW. SIGCHI Bulletin July 1991, vol. 23, no. 3. pp. 263-278.

^ Awareness in CSCW

Purpose

The purpose of this lecture is to introduce awareness and various approaches for theorising and supporting awareness.

Content

  • definitions,
  • awareness examples in various working situations (control rooms,IPLab,SIBO),
  • different kinds of awareness,
  • e-mail (push) versus Web, or news (pull), in relation to awareness,
  • awareness in collaborative editing tools,
  • peripheral awareness ("out of the corner of one's eye"),
  • general work situation awareness ("at a glance"),
  • social awareness; @work,
  • interest contexts; GroupDesk,
  • impromptu communication; Piazza,
  • Spatial Model; from VR to Aether,
  • awareness-related commercial applications, ICQ/messaging,
  • gathering awareness information with custom input devices, and
  • specific vehicles for displaying awareness information: ticker tapes, sign-inboards.

Literature

  • Dourish, P & Bellotti, V. (1992) Awareness and coordination in Shared Workspaces. in Turner, J. & Kraut, R., Proceedings of ACM CSCW'92
  • Fuchs, L. et al (1995) Supporting Cooperative Awareness with Local Event Mechanisms: The GroupDesk System. in Marmolin, H, Sundblad, Y, Proceedings of ECSCW'95

Suggested extra literature

  • Benford, S. & Fahlen, L. (1993) A Spatial Model of Interaction in Large Virtual Environments. in De Michelis, G. et al., Proceedings of ECSCW'93
  • Greenhalgh, C. & Benford, S. (1995) Virtual Reality Tele-conferencing: Implementation and Experience. in Marmolin, H, Sundblad, Y, Proceedings of ECSCW'95
  • Sandor, O., Bogdan, C. & Bowers, J. (1997) Aether: An Awareness Engine for CSCW. in Hughes, J. et al., Proceedings of ECSCW '97
  • Tollmar, K., Sandor, O. & Schomer, A. (1996) Supporting Social Awareness @Work. Design and Experience. in Ackerman, M, Proceedings of ACM CSCW'96
  • Isaacs, A. et al (1996) Piazza: A Desktop Environment Supporting Impromptu and Planned Interaction. in Ackerman, M, Proceedings of ACM CSCW '96
  • Fitzpatrick, G. et al. (1999) Augumenting the Workaday with Elvin, in Bodker, S. et al., Proceedings of ECSCW'99
  • Prinz, W. (1999) NESSIE, An Awareness Environment for Cooperative Settings, in Bodker, S. et al, Proceedings of ECSCW'99
  • Hughes, J. et al (1992) Faltering from Ethnography to Design. in Turner, J. et al., Proceedings of ACM CSCW 92

^ Field studies

Purpose

The purpose of this lecture is to provide a general understanding of field studies and how to carry out such a study.

Content

  • field studies in social sciences,
  • field studies in system/product development,
  • an exercise: observations on the spot,
  • how to do field studies, and
  • when to do a field study.

Literature

  • Hughes, J., King V., Rodden, T., and Andersen, H. (1994) Moving out from the control room: Ethnography in System Design Proceedings of the conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 1994. ACM Press New York, NY, USA
  • Shapiro, Dan (1994) The limits of ethnography: combining social sciences for CSCW. Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work ACM Press, New York, NY, USA. 1994, pp 417 ? 428.
  • Myers, Michael D. (1999) Investigating information systems with ethnographic research Communications of the Association for Information Systems, December 1999, Volume 2, Article 23, Association for Information Systems Atlanta, GA, USA

Suggested extra literature

  • Blomberg, J., Giacomi, J., Mosher, A., and Swenton-Wall, P. (1993). Ethnographic field methods and their relation to design. D. Schuler and A. Namioka (Eds.) Participatory Design: Principles and Practices. London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 123-155.
  • Schmidt, Kjeld. (2000). The critical role of workplace studies in CSCW. C. Heath, J. Hindmarsh and P. Luff (eds.): Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing System Design, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2000.
  • Wolcott, Harry F. (1990). Making a study `more ethnographic'. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, April 1, 1990, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 44-72.
  • Sommerville, I., Rodden, T., Sawyer, P., Bentley, R. (1992). Sociologists Can be Surprisingly Useful in Interactive Systems Design Proceedings of the HCI'92 Conference on People and Computers VII 1992 p.341-353 http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/sommerville92sociologists.html
  • Garfinkel, H. (1967). "Studies in Ethnomethodology", Prentice-Hall, New York.

^ Collaborative writing

Purpose

The purpose of this lecture is to provide a general understanding of collaborative writing and computer supported tools for it.

Content

  • what is collaborative writing,
  • issues in collaborative writing,
  • co-authoring practices in academia,
  • examples of collaborative writing tools, and
  • discussion: how will collaborative writing tools be in the future.

Literature

Everyone:
  • Sharples, M., Goodlet, J.S., Beck, E.E., Wood, C.C., Easterbrook, S.M. & Plowman, L. (1993) Chapter 2: Research issues in the study of computer-supported collaborative writing. In M. Sharples (ed.) Computer-Supported Collaborative Writing. London: Springer-Verlag.
For PhD students:

^ Communities

This description is from last years cours, but this years lecture about communities will be similar. More precise material for this years lecture will be added later.

Purpose

CSCW has traditionally had a strong focus on work. That is a natural consequence, following from the fact that computers for a long time have been expensive and rare. This is however changing as computing power becomes accessible to more people and thus also have an impact on life-outside-work. The lecture presents a perspective of CSCW beyond work, of computers entering the everyday lives and everyday activities of an increasing number of persons.

Content

CSCW will be broadened with an emphasis on non-instrumental activities. Special emphasis will be put on so-called collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) and on MUD systems. These systems can be used for several different purposes; for supporting education, for gaming and for purely social purposes. The lecture will discuss how these types of systems can be used to support existing (off-line) communities or to create a new type of phenomenon; virtual communities.

Literature

  • O'Day, V. L., Bobrow, D. G. & Shirley, M (1996). The social-technical design cycle. Proceedings of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'96). Cambridge, MA.
  • Mynatt, Elisabeth D. and O'Day, Vicki L. (1998) Network Communities: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed ... Journal of CSCW, no 7, pp 123 - 156, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Curtis, P. (1998). Not just a game: How LambdaMOO came to exist and what it did to get back at me. in C. Haynes and J.R. Holmvik (eds.), High Wired: On the Design, Use, and Theory of Educational MOOs. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.(10p)

Links


^ Collaborative virtual environments

Content

We will discuss the properties of shared virtual environments and some of the current research issues. The points we will take up include:

  • Distribution mechanisms and performance requirements
  • The Spatial interaction model
  • World contents generation
  • Interaction methods
  • Communication
  • On-line shared environments
  • Conferencing
  • Populated Information Terrains
  • Subjectivity

Literature

For everyone:
For PhD students:

Resources on the WWW


^ Social interaction in virtual environments

Purpose

The purpose of this lecture is to give an understanding of how multimodal virtual environments that provide visual, audio and even touch feedback can affect social interaction between humans.

Content

  • examples of social psychological fenomena that are also evident in virtual environments,
  • different kinds of groups and the dynamics of a workgroup,
  • people's understanding of the social affordances that different media have,
  • social presence theory and its relation to media richness theory,
  • the concept of virtual presence - feeling as if being in a virtual environment,
  • how different media affects communication,
  • what is communication in essence, do we communicate in more ways than we are aware of?

Literature

For everyone:
  • Becker, B. & Mark, G., (2002) Social conventions in computer-mediated communication: A Comparison of three online shared virtual environments. In Schroeder, R.(Ed) The Social Life of Avatars: Presence and interaction in shared virtual environments. Springer-Verlag.
For PhD students:
  • McGrath, J. E. (1993). Time, Interaction and Performance (TIP): A Theory of Groups. Small Group Research. In Baecker, R. M. (Ed.) Readings in groupware and computer-supported cooperative work : assisting human-human collaboration. San Mateo, Calif. : Kaufmann. pp 116-129.

Resources on the WWW


^ Computer support for process management, part 1

Content

This seminar will draw the basics of control of process management. First, I will present an analytical perspective of dynamic systems and how these can be handled from a control perspective. Second, I will present how these controll processes are performed in geographically distributed units. And third some basics of how locally distributed process management groups coordinate many related and interrelated information processes. Computer support is apperent in all situations but may be more or less visible.

Literature

For everyone:
  • Artman, H., & Waern, Y. (1999). Distributed Cognition in an Emergency Co-ordination Center. Cognition Technology & Work, Vol 1, pp. 237-246
  • Orasanu, Judith, & Connolly, Terry. (1992) The Reinvention of Decision Making. In Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods, Eds Klein, Gary A., Orasanu, Judith, Calderwood, Roberta, & Zsambok, Caroline E. Chapter 1, pp 3-20, Ablex Publishing Corporation.
For PhD students:

Suggested extra literature

  • Johansson, B., Artman, H. & Waern, Y. (2001) Technology in Crisis Management Systems - ideas and effects. Document Design Journal of research and problem solving in organizational communication, special issue, Pragmatics in Crisis, Vol2, Issue 3, pp. 247-258
  • Artman, H. & Persson, M., (2000) Old Practices - New Technology: Observations of how established practices meet new technology. In R. Dieng, A. Gibson, L. Kersenty, G. de Michelis (eds.) Desinging Cooperative Systems, pp. 35-39 Amsterdam, Ios Press Ohmsha. Can be found at 

^ Computer support for process management, part 2

Purpose

Detta föreläsningstillfälle syftar till att ge en översikt över ledningsarbete samt de frågor som rör användandet av CSCW-system inom denna arbetsdomän.

Content

Process- och trafikledning karaktäriseras av en komplex arbetsstruktur vilken kräver att många beslut fattas, oftast i realtid, av en hel grupp. En typisk operatörsgrupp av process- och ledningssystem förfogar över en mängd med olika system som kan variera en hel del i storlek, omfattning och ålder. Hur dessa system interagerar med varandra och används i det dagliga arbetet för att hjälpa operatörerna att sköta sina uppgifter är förknippat med frågor som är centrala för CSCW-området. Exempel från en av SLs ledningscentraler för tunnelbanan i Stockholm kommer att tas upp för diskussion.

Literature

  • Xiao Y. et.al., 2001, Cognitive properties of a whiteboard: A case study in a trauma centre, in Proceeedings of the seventh european conference on computer-suported cooperative work, 16-20 september 2001, Bonn, Germany, 259-278, Kluwer Academic Press.

Suggested extra literature

  • Ehrlich K., Designing groupware applications: A work-centered design approach, in M. Beaudouin-Lafon, Computer Supported Co-operative Work, Wiley & Sons, 1-28.
  • Martin D., Bowers J. & Wastell D., 1997, The interactional affordances of t echnology: An ethnography of human-computer interaction in an ambulance control center, in H. Thimbleby, B. O'Conail & P. Thomas, People and computers XII, Proceedings of HCI 97, Springer-Verlag: London, 263-281.

^ Workplace studies

Purpose

Since the end of 1980:ies there have been a substantial amount of work done trying to identify the mechanisms that are important for being able to collaborate in the workplace. Also, features of the current technologies or artifacts used for collaboration have been analyzed.  In order to understand the work, longitudinal ethnographic field studies have been conducted. This lecture will give an overview of a few well known studies and my  research at a consultancy firm.

Content

  • the purpose of workplace studies for the development of collaborative technologies, and
  • case studies of workplaces.

Literature

Everyone:
  • Schmidt, Kjeld (2000): The critical role of workplace studies in CSCW, in Christian Heath, Jon Hindmarsh, and Paul Luff (eds.): Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing Design, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  • McDonald, David W. and Ackerman, Mark S. (1998) Just Talk to Me: A Field Study of Expertise Location, in CSCW'98, ACM.
Ph.D students
  • Harper, R.H.R. and J.A. Hughes (1993). What a f-ing system! Send 'em all to the same place and then expect us to stop 'em hitting. Managing technology work in air traffic control. Technology in Working Order. Studies of work, interaction, and technology. G. Button. London and New York, Routledge: 127-144.

Suggested extra literature

  • Heath, Christian, and Paul Luff: 'Collaboration and control: Crisis management and multimedia technology in London Underground control rooms,' Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). An International Journal, vol. 1, no. 1-2, 1992, pp. 69-94.
  • Heath, Christian, Jon Hindmarsh, and Paul Luff (editors) (2000): Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing Design, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

^ Face-to-Face conversation

Purpose

To provide basic knowledge of how people communicate in ordinary conversation, and discuss implications for the design and use of CSCW systems.

Content

CSCW systems are often expected to replace or complement face-to-face communication. It is therefore important to understand how humans communicate in ordinary conversation, and how to take advantage of this knowledge in the design of CSCW systems.

  • verbal and non-verbal communication,
  • back-channel activity,
  • conversational structure and turn-taking,
  • the role of context in conversation-building,
  • breakdowns and repair,
  • common ground,
  • video as medium for conversation,
  • computer-mediated conversation in various forms: email, chat etc., and
  • feedback mechanisms, context tracking, conversational structure.

Literature

  • Dix, A., Finlay, J., Abowd, G. & Beale, R. (1997, 1993) Human-Computer Interaction. New York: Prentice Hall. (Chapter 14)
  • Clark, H.H. & Brennan, S.E. (1991) Grounding in communication. In L.B. Resnick, R.M. Levine, & S.D. Teasley (eds.) Perspectives on socially shared cognition. Reprinted in Baecker (ed.) (1993), Readings in Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work.
  • Whittaker, S. & B. O'Conaill (1997). The Role of Vision in Face-to-Face and Mediated Communcation. In: Video-Mediated Communication. K. E. Finn, A. J. Sellen & S. B. E. Wilbur, Lawrence Erlbaum Assocates.

Suggested extra literature

  • Clark, H. (1996) Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Herring, S. (ed.) (1996) Computer-Mediated Communication: Linguistic, Social and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Levinson, S. (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

^ Social navigation of information space

Purpose

The purpose of the lecture is to give the students basic knowledge of

  • how we can define and talk about electronic information spaces,
  • how we could define and talk about navigation in information spaces,
  • how navigation can be enhanced with social information, i.e. social navigation.

Content

The seminar will be divided into a theoretical part, practical part, and an optional part. In the first part we will discuss the theoretical frameworks for information space, navigation, and social navigation. In the second part we will discuss various systems that support social navigation and in what ways they help users navigate an information space. For the optional part we can either discuss a practical example of how a social navigation enhanced system can be designed or how the same system can be evaluated in a real world scenario. If you (the student) have any other suggestions or comments that you want me to talk about during the seminar please let me know. I can be reached at martins@sics.se

Literature

  • Svensson, Martin (2003) Defining, Designing and Evaluating Social Navigation, Chapter 2, Doctoral thesis, ISRN SICS-D--333--SE alt ISRN SU-KTH/DSV/R--03/1--SE.

Suggested extra literature

  • Dourish P (1999) Where the Footprints Lead : tracking down other roles for social navigation. in Hook, K.,Benyon, D., Munro, A., (eds) Social navigation of information space. Chapter 2, pp.15-32, Springer.

   


Kristina Groth, Nada, KTH, kicki@nada.kth.se
Uppdaterad: 2004-11-24