The purpose of this lecture is to give a brief background to the area of CSCW and an overview of the course.
what is CSCW,
overview of the course,
perspectives of CSCW,
basic concepts and taxonomies, and
questions for discussion.
Bannon, L. & Schmidt, K. (1991) CSCW: Four Characters in Search of a Context. Studies in Computer Supported Cooperative Work: Theory, Practice and Design. Editors Bowers, J. M. & Benford, S. D. Elsevier Science Publishers.
The purpose of this lecture is to provide an overview of various groupware systems and to discuss important issues in groupware design.
background: technological transformations, evolution of working life, multidisciplinary research,
3Cs of CSCW: Communication, Collaboration, Coordination,
taxonomy of groupware applications with examples,
groupware on the internet,
discussion: what are important factors for success of groupware applications.
Dix, A., Finlay, J., Abowd, G. & Beale, R. (1997, 1993) Human-Computer Interaction. New York: Prentice Hall. (Chapter 13)
Fuchs, L. et al (1995) Supporting Cooperative Awareness with Local Event Mechanisms: The GroupDesk System. in Marmolin, H, Sundblad, Y, Proceedings of ECSCW'95
Suggested extra literature
Benford, S. & Fahlen, L. (1993) A Spatial Model of Interaction in Large Virtual Environments. in De Michelis, G. et al., Proceedings of ECSCW'93
Greenhalgh, C. & Benford, S. (1995) Virtual Reality Tele-conferencing: Implementation and Experience. in Marmolin, H, Sundblad, Y, Proceedings of ECSCW'95
Sandor, O., Bogdan, C. & Bowers, J. (1997) Aether: An Awareness Engine for CSCW. in Hughes, J. et al., Proceedings of ECSCW '97
Tollmar, K., Sandor, O. & Schomer, A. (1996) Supporting Social Awareness @Work. Design and Experience. in Ackerman, M, Proceedings of ACM CSCW'96
Isaacs, A. et al (1996) Piazza: A Desktop Environment Supporting Impromptu and Planned Interaction. in Ackerman, M, Proceedings of ACM CSCW '96
Fitzpatrick, G. et al. (1999) Augumenting the Workaday with Elvin, in Bodker, S. et al., Proceedings of ECSCW'99
Prinz, W. (1999) NESSIE, An Awareness Environment for Cooperative Settings, in Bodker, S. et al, Proceedings of ECSCW'99
Hughes, J. et al (1992) Faltering from Ethnography to Design. in Turner, J. et al., Proceedings of ACM CSCW 92
The purpose of this lecture is to provide a general understanding of field studies and how to carry out such a study.
field studies in social sciences,
field studies in system/product development,
an exercise: observations on the spot,
how to do field studies, and
when to do a field study.
Hughes, J., King V., Rodden, T., and Andersen, H. (1994) Moving out from the control room: Ethnography in System Design Proceedings of the conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 1994. ACM Press New York, NY, USA
Shapiro, Dan (1994) The limits of ethnography: combining social sciences for CSCW. Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work ACM Press, New York, NY, USA. 1994, pp 417 ? 428.
Myers, Michael D. (1999) Investigating information systems with ethnographic research Communications of the Association for Information Systems, December 1999, Volume 2, Article 23, Association for Information Systems Atlanta, GA, USA
Suggested extra literature
Blomberg, J., Giacomi, J., Mosher, A., and Swenton-Wall, P. (1993). Ethnographic field methods and their relation to design. D. Schuler and A. Namioka (Eds.) Participatory Design: Principles and Practices. London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 123-155.
Schmidt, Kjeld. (2000). The critical role of workplace studies in CSCW. C. Heath, J. Hindmarsh and P. Luff (eds.): Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing System Design, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2000.
Wolcott, Harry F. (1990). Making a study `more ethnographic'. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, April 1, 1990, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 44-72.
Sommerville, I., Rodden, T., Sawyer, P., Bentley, R. (1992). Sociologists Can be Surprisingly Useful in Interactive Systems Design Proceedings of the HCI'92 Conference on People and Computers VII 1992 p.341-353
Garfinkel, H. (1967). "Studies in Ethnomethodology", Prentice-Hall, New York.
The purpose of this lecture is to provide a general understanding of collaborative writing and computer supported tools for it.
what is collaborative writing,
issues in collaborative writing,
co-authoring practices in academia,
examples of collaborative writing tools, and
discussion: how will collaborative writing tools be in the future.
Sharples, M., Goodlet, J.S., Beck, E.E., Wood, C.C., Easterbrook, S.M. & Plowman, L. (1993) Chapter 2: Research issues in the study of computer-supported collaborative writing. In M. Sharples (ed.) Computer-Supported Collaborative Writing. London: Springer-Verlag.
This description is from last years cours, but this years lecture about communities will be similar. More precise material for this years lecture will be added later.
CSCW has traditionally had a strong focus on work. That is a natural
consequence, following from the fact that computers for a long time have
been expensive and rare. This is however changing as computing power
becomes accessible to more people and thus also have an impact on
life-outside-work. The lecture presents a perspective of CSCW beyond work,
of computers entering the everyday lives and everyday activities of an
increasing number of persons.
CSCW will be broadened with an emphasis on non-instrumental activities.
Special emphasis will be put on so-called collaborative virtual
environments (CVEs) and on MUD systems. These systems can be used for
several different purposes; for supporting education, for gaming and for
purely social purposes. The lecture will discuss how these types of systems
can be used to support existing (off-line) communities or to create a new
type of phenomenon; virtual communities.
O'Day, V. L., Bobrow, D. G. & Shirley, M (1996). The social-technical design cycle. Proceedings of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'96). Cambridge, MA.
Mynatt, Elisabeth D. and O'Day, Vicki L. (1998) Network Communities: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed ... Journal of CSCW, no 7, pp 123 - 156, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Curtis, P. (1998). Not just a game: How LambdaMOO came to exist and what it did to get back at me. in C. Haynes and J.R. Holmvik (eds.), High Wired: On the Design, Use, and Theory of Educational MOOs. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.(10p)
Rheingold, H. (1994a). "The Heart of the Well". Chapter 1 in "The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic frontier". Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
The purpose of this lecture is to give an understanding of how multimodal virtual environments that provide visual, audio and even touch feedback can affect social interaction between humans.
examples of social psychological fenomena that are also evident in virtual environments,
different kinds of groups and the dynamics of a workgroup,
people's understanding of the social affordances that different media have,
social presence theory and its relation to media richness theory,
the concept of virtual presence - feeling as if being in a virtual environment,
how different media affects communication,
what is communication in essence, do we communicate in more ways than we are aware of?
Becker, B. & Mark, G., (2002) Social conventions in computer-mediated communication: A Comparison of three online shared virtual environments. In Schroeder, R.(Ed) The Social Life of Avatars: Presence and interaction in shared virtual environments. Springer-Verlag.
For PhD students:
McGrath, J. E. (1993). Time, Interaction and Performance (TIP): A Theory of Groups. Small Group Research. In Baecker, R. M. (Ed.) Readings in groupware and computer-supported cooperative work : assisting human-human collaboration. San Mateo, Calif. : Kaufmann. pp 116-129.
This seminar will draw the basics of control of process management. First, I
will present an analytical perspective of dynamic systems and how these can
be handled from a control perspective. Second, I will present how these
controll processes are performed in geographically distributed units. And
third some basics of how locally distributed process management groups
coordinate many related and interrelated information processes. Computer
support is apperent in all situations but may be more or less visible.
Artman, H., & Waern, Y. (1999). Distributed Cognition in an Emergency Co-ordination Center. Cognition Technology & Work, Vol 1, pp. 237-246
Orasanu, Judith, & Connolly, Terry. (1992) The Reinvention of Decision Making. In Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods, Eds Klein, Gary A., Orasanu, Judith, Calderwood, Roberta, & Zsambok, Caroline E. Chapter 1, pp 3-20, Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Johansson, B., Artman, H. & Waern, Y. (2001) Technology in Crisis Management Systems - ideas and effects. Document Design Journal of research and problem solving in organizational communication, special issue, Pragmatics in Crisis, Vol2, Issue 3, pp. 247-258
Artman, H. & Persson, M., (2000) Old Practices - New Technology: Observations of how established practices meet new technology. In R. Dieng, A. Gibson, L. Kersenty, G. de Michelis (eds.) Desinging Cooperative Systems, pp. 35-39 Amsterdam, Ios Press Ohmsha. Can be found at
Computer support for process management, part 2
Detta föreläsningstillfälle syftar till att ge en översikt över ledningsarbete samt de frågor som rör användandet av CSCW-system inom denna arbetsdomän.
Process- och trafikledning karaktäriseras av en komplex arbetsstruktur vilken kräver att många beslut fattas, oftast i realtid, av en hel grupp. En typisk operatörsgrupp av process- och ledningssystem förfogar över en mängd med olika system som kan variera en hel del i storlek, omfattning och ålder. Hur dessa system interagerar med varandra och används i det dagliga arbetet för att hjälpa operatörerna att sköta sina uppgifter är förknippat med frågor som är centrala för CSCW-området. Exempel från en av SLs ledningscentraler för tunnelbanan i Stockholm kommer att tas upp för diskussion.
Xiao Y. et.al., 2001, Cognitive properties of a whiteboard: A case study in a trauma centre, in Proceeedings of the seventh european conference on computer-suported cooperative work, 16-20 september 2001, Bonn, Germany, 259-278, Kluwer Academic Press.
Suggested extra literature
Ehrlich K., Designing groupware applications: A work-centered design
approach, in M. Beaudouin-Lafon, Computer Supported Co-operative Work,
Wiley & Sons, 1-28.
Martin D., Bowers J. & Wastell D., 1997, The interactional affordances of t
echnology: An ethnography of human-computer interaction in an ambulance
control center, in H. Thimbleby, B. O'Conail & P. Thomas, People and
computers XII, Proceedings of HCI 97, Springer-Verlag: London, 263-281.
Since the end of 1980:ies there have been a substantial amount of work done trying to identify the mechanisms that are important for being able to collaborate in the workplace. Also, features of the current technologies or artifacts used for collaboration have been analyzed. In order to understand the work, longitudinal ethnographic field studies have been conducted. This lecture will give an overview of a few well known studies and my research at a consultancy firm.
the purpose of workplace studies for the development of collaborative technologies, and
case studies of workplaces.
Schmidt, Kjeld (2000): The critical role of workplace studies in CSCW, in Christian Heath, Jon Hindmarsh, and Paul Luff (eds.): Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing Design, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
McDonald, David W. and Ackerman, Mark S. (1998) Just Talk to Me: A Field Study of Expertise Location, in CSCW'98, ACM.
Harper, R.H.R. and J.A. Hughes (1993). What a f-ing system! Send 'em
all to the same place and then expect us to stop 'em hitting. Managing
technology work in air traffic control. Technology in Working Order.
Studies of work, interaction, and technology. G. Button. London and New
York, Routledge: 127-144.
Suggested extra literature
Heath, Christian, and Paul Luff: 'Collaboration and control: Crisis management
and multimedia technology in London Underground control rooms,' Computer
Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). An International Journal, vol. 1, no.
1-2, 1992, pp. 69-94.
Heath, Christian, Jon Hindmarsh, and Paul Luff (editors) (2000): Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing Design, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
To provide basic knowledge of how people communicate in ordinary conversation, and discuss implications for the design and use of CSCW systems.
CSCW systems are often expected to replace or complement face-to-face communication. It is therefore important to understand how humans communicate in ordinary conversation, and how to take advantage of this knowledge in the design of CSCW systems.
verbal and non-verbal communication,
conversational structure and turn-taking,
the role of context in conversation-building,
breakdowns and repair,
video as medium for conversation,
computer-mediated conversation in various forms: email, chat etc., and
Dix, A., Finlay, J., Abowd, G. & Beale, R. (1997, 1993) Human-Computer Interaction. New York: Prentice Hall. (Chapter 14)
Clark, H.H. & Brennan, S.E. (1991) Grounding in communication. In L.B. Resnick, R.M. Levine, & S.D. Teasley (eds.) Perspectives on socially shared cognition. Reprinted in Baecker (ed.) (1993), Readings in Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work.
Whittaker, S. & B. O'Conaill (1997). The Role of Vision in Face-to-Face and Mediated Communcation. In: Video-Mediated Communication. K. E. Finn, A. J. Sellen & S. B. E. Wilbur, Lawrence Erlbaum Assocates.
Suggested extra literature
Clark, H. (1996) Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Herring, S. (ed.) (1996) Computer-Mediated Communication: Linguistic, Social and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Levinson, S. (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Social navigation of information space
The purpose of the lecture is to give the students basic knowledge of
how we can define and talk about electronic information spaces,
how we could define and talk about navigation in information spaces,
how navigation can be enhanced with social information, i.e. social navigation.
The seminar will be divided into a theoretical part, practical
part, and an optional part. In the first part we will discuss the
theoretical frameworks for information space, navigation, and social
navigation. In the second part we will discuss various systems that
support social navigation and in what ways they help users navigate an
information space. For the optional part we can either discuss a
practical example of how a social navigation enhanced system can be
designed or how the same system can be evaluated in a real world
scenario. If you (the student) have any other suggestions or comments
that you want me to talk about during the seminar please let me
know. I can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
Svensson, Martin (2003) Defining, Designing and Evaluating Social Navigation, Chapter 2, Doctoral thesis, ISRN SICS-D--333--SE alt ISRN SU-KTH/DSV/R--03/1--SE.
Suggested extra literature
Dourish P (1999) Where the Footprints Lead : tracking down other roles for social navigation. in Hook, K.,Benyon, D., Munro, A., (eds) Social navigation of information space. Chapter 2, pp.15-32, Springer.