Artificial Intelligence and Digital Entertainment
2D1381, Fall 2005

Instructor: Rand Waltzman


The titles/topics of these lectures are tentative (at least until after the power point presentations have been posted – they are after the fact).  I reserve the right to make any changes that I feel are appropriate. 


I have freely plagiarized material for these lectures from numerous open sources without giving credit where credit is due – simply a matter practicality.  The lecture materials posted here are for academic use only.  If you recognize some of your own material, I thank you for making it publicly available.  If you really want to be referenced, I will be happy to add a reference if you just drop me a line.  Naturally, I take full responsibility for any misrepresentations or errors appearing in these lectures. 


Lecture 1: Introduction and Background. (ppt slides)


Date: 31/8.  Time: 13-15.  Place: V32.



Excellent source of background on history of AI.  If you want to get a good idea of where you are going, you should have a good idea of where you have been.

Numerous references that will help give you an overview of AI.  Probably the best single source I know.  For one of my favorite selections from this list see next reference.

This “Artificial Intelligence Tutorial Review” is a very nice overview with specific pointers to other literature if you want them.  It is not too long and well worth a look.

Website for a remarkable little book called “A Theory of Fun for Game Design” by Ralph Koster.  I highly recommend the book.  I also recommend rummaging around both the book website and Mr. Koster’s personal web site (link to found on this page).0


Nareyek, A. 2004
Artificial Intelligence in Computer Games - State of the Art and Future Directions
ACM Queue 1(10), 58-65.


Lecture 2 - Introduction and Background Continued.


Date: 6/9.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E32.


Lecture 3 - Introduction and Background Continued


Date: 8/9.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E32.


Lecture 4 - Game Ontology/Game Description Languages (ppt slides)


Date: 13/9.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E32.



Classic article by Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila describes the basic ideas of the Semantic Web.  Good overview of the ideas behind it.


Natalya F. Noy and Deborah L. McGuinness. Ontology Development 101: A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology.

Excellent and highly practical introduction to building an ontology using one of the most popular tools available – Protégé.  Highly recommended.


D. Nardi, R. J. Brachman. An Introduction to Description Logics

This is the introductory chapter to the Description Logic Handbook.  A thorough introduction - but not exactly light reading.


Home Page for the Game Ontology Project at Georgia Tech

This page has links to the complete Game Ontology that was discussed in the lecture.  There are also has references to several other competing approaches to game design languages.


S. Björk, J. Holopainen.  Describing Games: An Interaction-Centric Structural Framework.

S. Lundgren, S. Björk.  Game Mechanics: Describing Computer-Augmented Games in Terms of Interactions.

S. Björk, S. Lundgren, J. Holopainen.  Game Design Patterns.

Collection of papers describing the concept and use of Game Design Patterns discussed in the lecture.


Lecture 5 - Traditional Games / Search (ppt slides)


Date: 15/9.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E33.




Lecture notes by Dr. Martin Johnson, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand provide a very nice discussion about the use of search in AI.  There are two parts.  The first is Solving Problems by Searching.  The second part is Informed Search Methods.


Practical Artificial Intelligence Programming in Java is a very nice little book by Mark Watson that gives very elementary and practical explanations of a number of basic AI techniques.  These explanations are made concrete by showing you how to implement the ideas described in Java (lots of detail).  The book is downloadable and absolutely free.  The first chapter covers search and illustrates its use in classic games.  Highly recommended for those of you who want get an introduction to how things really work.


IBM has an excellent site about Deep Blue.  You can see the details of the game with Kasparov and read a variety of interesting articles about the technology that was used.


There is an extremely interesting web site about Automatic Knowledge Generation in Games.  It is devoted to the topics of “How to use program specialization to build better and faster game programs” and “How to make computers discover new knowledge in games.”  They give many interesting examples.


Here is a web site where you can read all about Chinook, the world champion checkers playing program.  You can even play a game against Chinook yourself.


You can try your hand at backgammon against TD-Gammon, the computer expert mentioned in the lecture at this web site.  A fairly technical description of TD-Gammon by its creator can be found here.


You can read about Logistello at Michael Buro’s web site.  You can even download the source code!


You can read all about Matt Ginsberg’s GIB bridge playing program (and even buy a copy at a fairly low price!) here.


Lecture 6 - Traditional Games / Search Continued


Date: 20/9.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E32.


Lecture 7 – Entertainment Agents (ppt slides)


Date: 22/9.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E32.




Intelligent Agents by Ira Rudowsky is a nice, short introduction to Agent technology in general.


For more extensive introductions to Agent technology I recommend either Software Agents: An Overview by Hyacinth Nwana or Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice by Woolridge and Jennings.


Kenrick Mock et al give a nice discussion of the Risky Business game and RobBot the game show host that we discussed in class in their article Cyberspace Game Show Hosts : Agents for Socialization, Not Just Entertainment.  Kenrick has a web site about Internet Relay Chat (IRC) Gaming that is definitely worth checking out.  He provides a lot of good background and information on how to join in the fun with several games that he has authored including Risky Business.  If you want to try Risky Business you can get on an EFnet IRC server and go to #riskybus.   Kenrick recently told me that he usually uses as the server.  For those of you who are not familiar with using IRC I recommend you start by checking out the mIRC web site.  There you will be able to download an IRC client and get all the help you need to get started using IRC.


Leonard Foner gives a nice, brief discussion of another very interesting agent called Julia in Entertaining Agents: A Sociological Case Study.  He provides a more detailed description of Julia in What’s An Agent, Anyway?  A Sociological Case Study.


Patti Maes, one of the most entertaining of the entertainment agent gurus at MIT, give a very nice introduction to this subject in her article Artificial Life Meets Entertainment: Lifelike Autonomous Agents.


Joseph Weizenbaum is the original creator of ELIZA.  There is nothing like reading about this from the source.  The original paper on the subject from 1966 is ELIZA A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine.  I strongly encourage you to read this.


Lecture 8 – Entertainment Agents Continued


Date: 27/9.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E36.


Lecture 9 – Rule Based Programming (ppt slides)


Date: 29/9.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E32.




The book Rule-Based Expert Systems --The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project edited by Bruce G. Buchanan and Edward H. Shortliffe from 1984 is a classic in the field of rule based programming.  The American Association of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) has remarkably made this book freely available online!  I particularly recommend the chapter The Origin of Rule-Based Systems in AI by Randall Davis and Jonathan J. King as an excellent overview.


If you want to explore an excellent collection of references on the general topic of rule based programming and expert systems, I highly recommend the special topic page on expert systems maintained by AAAI.


The Artificial Intelligence Interface Standards Committee (AIISC) of the International Games Developers Association has a Working Group on Rule-based Systems (RBS).  I would strongly encourage you to read their 2005 Annual Report for an excellent view of this topic from some of the heavyweights in the games business.  It is extremely educational.  By the way, you should check out the link to the Game AI Newsletter on the International Games Developers Association web site.


For those of you with an interest in mobile entertainment platforms, I recommend reading A Lightweight Rule-based Al Engine for Mobile Games that was presented at the 2004 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology (note that this link is to the information page for the 2005 edition of the conference).


Lecture 10 – Rule Based Programming Continued


Date: 4/10.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E53.


Lecture 11 – Rule Based Programming Continued


Date: 6/10.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E32.


Lecture 12 – Artificial Emotions (ppt slides Part A, Part B)


Date: 11/10.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E53.




Here is a collection of papers that will get you well on your emotional way.


Useful Roles of Emotions in Artificial Agents: A Case Study from Artificial Life by Matthias Scheutz
The Artificial Emotion Engine, Driving Emotional Behavior by Ian Wilson

New Challenges for Character-Based AI for Games by Isla and Blumberg

Facial Expression and Emotion by Paul Ekman (one of the founders of the field)

What Are Emotion Theories About? by Aaron Sloman (always worth reading what he has to say)


Lecture 13 - Artificial Emotions Continued


Date: 13/10.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E32.


Lecture 14 - Artificial Emotions Continued


Date: 27/10.  Time: 15-17.  Place: D31.


Lecture 15 – Guest Lecture: Artificial Emotions in Music


Date: 3/11.  Time: 15-17.  Place: D31.


Lecture 16 – Fuzzy Logic


Date: 10/11.  Time: 15-17.  Place: D31.


Lecture 17 - Robotics for Personal Entertainment


Date: 17/11.  Time: 15-17.  Place: E2.


Lecture 18 - Entertainment Production


Date: 24/11.  Time: 15-17.  Place: D31.


Lecture 19 - AI Engines and Tools for Scripting and Control


Date: 1/12.  Time: 15-17.  Place: D31



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