(bison.info)Simple Error Recovery


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Simple Error Recovery
=====================

   Up to this point, this manual has not addressed the issue of "error
recovery"--how to continue parsing after the parser detects a syntax
error.  All we have handled is error reporting with `yyerror'.  Recall
that by default `yyparse' returns after calling `yyerror'.  This means
that an erroneous input line causes the calculator program to exit.
Now we show how to rectify this deficiency.

   The Bison language itself includes the reserved word `error', which
may be included in the grammar rules.  In the example below it has been
added to one of the alternatives for `line':

     line:     '\n'
             | exp '\n'   { printf ("\t%.10g\n", $1); }
             | error '\n' { yyerrok;                  }
     ;

   This addition to the grammar allows for simple error recovery in the
event of a parse error.  If an expression that cannot be evaluated is
read, the error will be recognized by the third rule for `line', and
parsing will continue.  (The `yyerror' function is still called upon to
print its message as well.)  The action executes the statement
`yyerrok', a macro defined automatically by Bison; its meaning is that
error recovery is complete (Note: Error Recovery).  Note the
difference between `yyerrok' and `yyerror'; neither one is a misprint.

   This form of error recovery deals with syntax errors.  There are
other kinds of errors; for example, division by zero, which raises an
exception signal that is normally fatal.  A real calculator program
must handle this signal and use `longjmp' to return to `main' and
resume parsing input lines; it would also have to discard the rest of
the current line of input.  We won't discuss this issue further because
it is not specific to Bison programs.


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