(bison.info)Rpcalc Lexer

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The `rpcalc' Lexical Analyzer

   The lexical analyzer's job is low-level parsing: converting
characters or sequences of characters into tokens.  The Bison parser
gets its tokens by calling the lexical analyzer.  Note: The Lexical
Analyzer Function `yylex'.

   Only a simple lexical analyzer is needed for the RPN calculator.
This lexical analyzer skips blanks and tabs, then reads in numbers as
`double' and returns them as `NUM' tokens.  Any other character that
isn't part of a number is a separate token.  Note that the token-code
for such a single-character token is the character itself.

   The return value of the lexical analyzer function is a numeric code
which represents a token type.  The same text used in Bison rules to
stand for this token type is also a C expression for the numeric code
for the type.  This works in two ways.  If the token type is a
character literal, then its numeric code is the ASCII code for that
character; you can use the same character literal in the lexical
analyzer to express the number.  If the token type is an identifier,
that identifier is defined by Bison as a C macro whose definition is
the appropriate number.  In this example, therefore, `NUM' becomes a
macro for `yylex' to use.

   The semantic value of the token (if it has one) is stored into the
global variable `yylval', which is where the Bison parser will look for
it.  (The C data type of `yylval' is `YYSTYPE', which was defined at
the beginning of the grammar; Note: Declarations for `rpcalc'.

   A token type code of zero is returned if the end-of-file is
encountered.  (Bison recognizes any nonpositive value as indicating the
end of the input.)

   Here is the code for the lexical analyzer:

     /* Lexical analyzer returns a double floating point
        number on the stack and the token NUM, or the ASCII
        character read if not a number.  Skips all blanks
        and tabs, returns 0 for EOF. */
     #include <ctype.h>
     yylex (void)
       int c;
       /* skip white space  */
       while ((c = getchar ()) == ' ' || c == '\t')
       /* process numbers   */
       if (c == '.' || isdigit (c))
           ungetc (c, stdin);
           scanf ("%lf", &yylval);
           return NUM;
       /* return end-of-file  */
       if (c == EOF)
         return 0;
       /* return single chars */
       return c;

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