From Formal Rules to Bison Input ================================ A formal grammar is a mathematical construct. To define the language for Bison, you must write a file expressing the grammar in Bison syntax: a "Bison grammar" file. Note: Bison Grammar Files. A nonterminal symbol in the formal grammar is represented in Bison input as an identifier, like an identifier in C. By convention, it should be in lower case, such as `expr', `stmt' or `declaration'. The Bison representation for a terminal symbol is also called a "token type". Token types as well can be represented as C-like identifiers. By convention, these identifiers should be upper case to distinguish them from nonterminals: for example, `INTEGER', `IDENTIFIER', `IF' or `RETURN'. A terminal symbol that stands for a particular keyword in the language should be named after that keyword converted to upper case. The terminal symbol `error' is reserved for error recovery. Note: Symbols. A terminal symbol can also be represented as a character literal, just like a C character constant. You should do this whenever a token is just a single character (parenthesis, plus-sign, etc.): use that same character in a literal as the terminal symbol for that token. A third way to represent a terminal symbol is with a C string constant containing several characters. Note: Symbols, for more information. The grammar rules also have an expression in Bison syntax. For example, here is the Bison rule for a C `return' statement. The semicolon in quotes is a literal character token, representing part of the C syntax for the statement; the naked semicolon, and the colon, are Bison punctuation used in every rule. stmt: RETURN expr ';' ; Note: Syntax of Grammar Rules.
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